Bending of beam

A beam is defined as a structure of uniform cross section whose length is large in comparison to its breadth and thickness
For such a structure the shearing stress for any given cross section is negligible.
Beams are used in construction of bridges or for the purpose of supporting loads. They are commonly used in the multi storied building. They are used in pillars in vertical position.
Bending of Beam

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Consider a beam of uniform rectangular cross section. Let the beam be subject to deforming force so that it bends.
In the initial position of the beam the, the various filaments constituting the beam are parallel layers of equal length. When the deforming force is applied the beam bends as in fig ii . above the  layer AB the filaments are elongated while below AB they are compressed. The length of the layer AB remains unaltered. It is called neutral-axis  The change in length of any filament is proportional to the distance of the filament to the neutral axis.

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